INFLUENCE OF PANCREATIC EaTRACTS 67
drops were observed in the blood sugar level (frequently to
points below normal) and marked changes were demonstrated in
the D :N ratio. These changes were demonstrated both for
allikaline and for acid perfusates, but were greater anld more con-
stant with acid perfusates given neutral.
The influence of pancreatic extracts upon the carbohydrate meta-
bolism of depancreatized dogs.
By C. B. F. GIBBS, HARRY D. CLOUGH, NEIL C. STONE and JOHN R.
[Fronm the Physiological Laboratory of the University of Roches-
ter, Rochester, N. Y.]
The experimental work reported dealt with the effects of ex-
tracts prepared in various ways from the pancreas of the dog,
pig and ox upon the blood sugar, D :N ratio, respiratory quo-
tient and clinical condition of depancreatized dogs.
A dog was given two days to recoyer from the operation and
to become totally diabetic as shown by a D :N ratio of 2.8 or
more. The dogs were fed ground beef in increasing amounts
after the first day. The extracts were administered by stomach
tube, intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously and intra-
Extract given by stomach tube caused no or very little fall
in blood or urinary sugar. Injections of the extract into vein,
tissue and peritoneum have been followed by abrupt lowering of
the sugar .in the blood and urine, the former at times even below
normal and the latter has been made to completely disappear even
when glucose had been previously administered. In the majority
of cases the lowest level of blood sugar was reached in 4 hours
from the time of injection whether the extract was given into
vein, peritoneum, muscle or under the skin. Since harmful ef-
fects were experienced more frequently when the extracts were
injected intravenously, intramuscularly and intraperitoneally
than when given subcutaneously the last method was used most.
The first preparations used in this series of experiments were
extract' of fre%>l.y re. oved, macerated dog's pancreas given