222 Morphology and Pl,ysiology ~f'Areas of Lungerhans

constantly greater under meat diet than under carbohydrate diet or in hunger.

But since, as may be seen from the measurements given of the normal areas,

there are marked individual differences even under the same circumstances,

I believe that this variation is due to individual peculiarities, although Ssobolew

states that the size and number of the areas are quite constant for each species.

In the following table, I, in each case, represents the splenic third of the pancreas,

2, the middle third, and 3, the end nearest the duodenum.

Av. no. Av. size i Proportion Size of larg- Sizeofsmall-

Experiment. per mm. sq. mm. of gland to est area in est area in

ormal fdgeisland. sq. mm. sq. mm.

Normal (full diges-

tion)

I. 35 .02 i' I:.007 .31 x .38 .04 x .06

2. 42 .OI4 I: .o006 .20ox . .02 4 x .o6

3 .68 .02I I: .0oi4 .2i x .43 .05 x .o6

Hunger-36 hours

I. T .54 .OI2 I: .OI8 I3 x .37 .o04 x .o05

2. I .22 .00oo64 I: .oo8 .19 X .20 .03 x .04

3. .71 .o04 i .0I . 24 x .36 .03 x o5

Hunger-46 hours

I. .346 .023 :.oo . 40 x .54 .02 x .04

2. .4 01 .oI I: .°5 OI 5 X .20 .03 x II

3. .I8 .036 I: .o006 .25 x .48 .05 x .o06

Hunger-52 hours

I. . 46 .oI8 I: . oo008 .I9 x .52 .02 x .04

2. .52 .o5 I: .o008 .9g x .23 .05 x .06

3- .· 51 .009 : .005 . 3 x .I8 .03 x .04

Carbohydrate diet

30 days

I. .39 .oI8 I: .o006 J8 x .33 .o x .08

74 .oI3 I: .oo .38 x .40 .04 x .05

3· 43 .oI9 I: .o008 .20 x .35 .o6 x . 07

Carbohydrate diet

60 days

I. s9 .oI6 I: .o006 .T 9 x .21 .06 x .o08

2. .5 .oI9 I: .0099 .22 x .34 .05 x .06

3. .52 .o9g I: .oo98 .8x .500 o6 x .07

Meat diet, 30 day

I. *75 .OI5 I .oII .I3 X 50 . 03 x .05

2. .69 .oI5 I: .oIo2 26 x .40 05 X .o06

3 I.OI .OI 2 I: .oI2 .17 x .I9 04 x .05

Meat diet, 60 days

I. ·57 .032 I: .oI8 .30 x .68 .05 x .07

2. .54 .025 I: .or3 .27 X .42 .05 x . o7

3 . *4 . o3I I: . o 2 .22 X .68 .06 x .o8

The so-called transition forms are merely resting pancreatic

tubules. The size and number of the islands have individual

variations under normal conditions fully as great as occur under

varied conditions of digestion, hunger, and diet, and no changes

occur under these conditions as has been shown by Opie, Schulze,

Diamare, Jarotzky, and by myself. That the protoplasm of the

insular cells, as Mankowski himself states, is chemically different