154 Pancreas Emulsions in Experimental Diabetes
sugar excretion of diabetic dogs and lowered their D/N ratio. Murlin and
Kramer5 injected boiled pancreatic extracts into depancreatized dogs and
found a temporary reduction in the output of sugar. A mixed boiled ex-
tract of pancreas and duodenal mucosa produced a greater fall, and in one
case a complete disappearance of the urinary sugar. The results were
referred by these authors mainly to the sodium carbonate present in the
extracts, because Ringer's solution, which had been brought to about the
same degree of alkalinity as the medium used for the extract, was found
to have similar effects. Later the preliminary announcement6 of the pres-
ent work led Murlin and Kramer7 to try unboiled pancreatic extract.
This was given by mouth, however, and was mixed with Na2CO3. A favor-
able influence on the respiratory quotient was observed in two experiments.
The present work was undertaken because of the remarkable
influence which an emulsion of pancreas had been found to exert
upon the disposition of intravenously injected dextrose in diabetic
dogs. In normal animalss large quantities of sugar, introduce,l
intravenously, were promptly lost from the circulation; in diabetice
animals,69 on the other hand, this occurred very slowly, as was
shown by the fact that even an hour and a half after the end
of the sugar infusion the blood sugar was still far above its original
level. Now, when an emulsion of pancreas was mixed with the
glucose solution to be injected, the diabetic animal handled the
sugar in nearly a normal manner.6 Then the question naturally
arose whether a similar pancreatie emulsion would not help the
diabetic organism to dispose of its own excess sugar also.
In testing this question there were two principles which, we felt,
should be followed.' First, since the chemical properties of the
effective substance or substances in the pancreas were unknown,
it seemed necessary to avoid complicated procedures of purifica-
tion; therefore, a simple water extraction with subsequent dilution
with saline was adopted. Secondly, since depancreatization brings
on its effect within a very short time, it appeared that normally
the pancreas secretes its effective substance into the blood stream
continually in very small amounts. It was therefore decided to
6 Murlin, J. R., and Kramer, B., J. Biol. Chem., 1913, xv, 365.
6 Kleiner, I. S., and Meltzer, S. J., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc., 1915, i, 338.
7 Murlin, J. R., and Kramer, B., J. Biol. Chem., 1916, xxvii, 517.
8Kleiner, I. S., and Meltzer, S. J., Am. J. Physiol., 1914, xxxiii, p.
xvii. Kleiner, I. S., J. Exp. Med., 1916, xxiii, 507.
9 Kleiner, I. S., and Meltzer, S. J., Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med.,
1914-15, xii, 58.