286 Aqueous Extracts of Pancreas. I
For example, Dog 8 (Table VIII) deprived of the pancreas on Aug. 8,
was given 4 days in which to develop complete intolerance for carbohydrate.
A test feeding of 20 gm. of glucose given at 7 a.m., Sept. 1, did not raise
the R. Q. beyond 0.72. There was, therefore, little or no residual capacity
to oxidize sugar. At 10.30 a.m., 100 cc. of Preparation 62 (2), already
described, were given subcutaneously in four places, and at 11.15 a.m.
another feeding of 20 gm. of glucose in water. The I1. Q. at 4.45 p.m. had
risen only a couple of points. Other evidence of benefit from the extract,
however, was found-in a blood sugar level of 0.286 at 4.50 p.m., notwith-
standing the 45 gm. of glucose which had been ingested during the day.
The next morning at 8 a.m. the quotient was found to be higher (0.76),
indicating that the insulin had begun to affect the oxidation of sugar after
the test which was made at 4.45 p.m. the day before and that the high point
in the curve had probably been passed in the night.
A second injection of No. 63 (2), known from previous evidence to be
potent, given at 8.20 a.m. on Sept. 2, and followed at 10.27 a.m. by an
infusion of 10 gmin. of glucose into the vein, brought up the R. Q. at 11.45 a.m.
to 0.80. But the effect was fleeting; for at 1.50 p.m. the quotient had fallen
again to the diabetic level. Attention was called to the same phenom-
enon in the case of Cat 2' and had been noted with perfusates (27). One
might be inclined to infer a quantitative relationship rather than a catalytic
relationship of insulin to the reaction of oxidation.
No further treatment was given Dog 8 until Sept. 5. The night urine of
Sept. 4 contained a D:N ratio of 1.21 (not shown in Table VIII) and the
R. Q. was found at 9.20 a.m. to be 0.75. Both tests show that the animal
at this time was not completely diabetic. No explanation can be offered
for this condition unless it was due to a delayed effect of the extract given
on Sept. 2. The blood sugar at 10.30 a.m., however, shows plainly enough
that whatever protection the animal had received was nearly exhausted.
A single injection of Preparation 64 (1)-C (made by extraction in alcohol
containing 0.2 N HC1) given at 10.45 a.m. followed at 12.20 p.m. by in-
travenous infusion of 10 gm. of glucose, raised the quotient to 0.87 at
2.35 p.m., 4 hours after administration of the extract. At 5 p.m. it had
fallen again to 0.80.
The observations on this animal illustrate the importance of
other contributing factors than the insulin itself in securing
evidence of combustion. One of these unquestionably is what
may be called the degree of saturation of the tissues (particularly
the liver) with glycogen. It is known that with a normal animal
which has been fasting for some time a single dose of sugar, which,
in a well fed animal would produce a R. Q. approaching unity,
may fail to show any effect and the interpretation is that the tissues
' Pages 257 and 258.