Murlin, Clough, Gibbs, and Stokes 265
The negative results obtained by Hugounenq and Doyon (14)
and by Hédon (15), of course, proved only that the particular
methods employed by them had not successfully brought out or
successfully preserved the hormone which everybody since
iMinkowski's time has known must be present. The detoxication
theory was wholly incredible in the light of Hédon's (16) and
Drennan's (17) work on transfusion of blood from the vein of a
normal animal into a diabetic animal.
The idea of excluding the external enzymes by ligation of the
pancreatic ducts and consequent degenerationof the acinous tissue
was acted upon first by Scott (18) working at that time under
Carlson, but succeeded by better surgical skill in the hands of
Banting and Best (19). It should be emphasized that this
technique was not necessary to demonstrate the presence of the
hormone as Banting and his colleagues themselves have shown.
The use of 0.2 N HC1 in extraction of the pancreas by Kramer and
Murlin, instead of just a sufficient amount of 0.1 N HCl to render
the mixture acid as used by Knowlton and Starling (20), was
begun with the idea of destroying trypsin,2 because they had
witnessed the terrific effects of surviving trypsin when extracts
in neutral solutions were injected subcutaneously.
The immediate stimulus for resumption of this work was the
report of Paulesco's (21) favorable results. They were distinctly
encouraging. He found that the intravenous injection of a sterile
extract into depancreatized dogs brought about a diminution or
even a temporary suspension of the hyperglycemia and of the
glycosuria; also a diminution of the excessive production and
excretion of urea and acetone bodies. The effect appeared imme-
diately, reached its maximum in about 2 hours, and continued for
12 hours. The method of extraction (22) employed by Paulesco
has not been available to us.
Experiments Previous to Appearance of Banting and Best's
In the process of reorientation after several years intermission,
and before the perfusion method was fully proved out, simple
The original idea of facilitating solution of the hormone from the pan-
creas by means of acid seems to have been adopted by Knowlton and
Starling because secretin, the prototype of hormones, had proved soluble
in this way, rather than with the idea of destroying trypsin.