AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PANCREAS.
I. INFLUNCE ON1 THE CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM OF
BY JOHN R. MURLIN, HARRY D. CLOUGH, C. B. F. GIBBS, AND
ARTHUR M. STOKES.
(From the Physiological Laboratory ofthe University of Rochester, Rochester.)
(Received for publication, March 20, 1923.)
The following study is a continuation of the investigation begun
by Murlin and Kramer (1) in 1912 at the Cornell University
Medical College and prosecuted by them at that place until
late in August, 1916. The early results of that investigation
showed a complete disappearance of sugar from the urine of
depancreatized dogs when a combined extract of pancreas and
duodenal mucosa was injected intravenously. Because of a
remarkable coincidence the effect was erroneously attributed at
the time to the influence of alkali administered with the extracts.
Later results (2) proved, however, that alkali alone (sodium
carbonate or bicarbonate) never caused complete disappearance
of sugar from the urine and did not bring about either deposition
of glycogen (3) or combustion of sugar in the depancreatized dog.
This conclusion left the earlier result open to the interpretation
that there had been an actual utilization of carbohydrate under
the influenoe of the pancreatic extract, and it was to test this
hypothesis that in 1916 extracts of pancreas alone, made in acid
media, but administered with alkali and sugar by stomach tube,
were used. In order to avoid any possible liberation of COs
from the alkali, whioh would vitiate the respiratory quotient as
an index of combustion, sodium hydroxide in 0.05 N concentration
was chosen. Encouraged by the results of Kleiner and Meltzer
(4) with raw pancrestic material and because the extracts were
not in these trials given parenterally, they were not boiled, as
they had been in the earlier experiments. Following this proce-