subject.5 At this stage of the investigation,
definite proof was at hand that the two funda-
mental metabolic disturbances which mark the
diabetic condition, namely, loss of the power
of sugar storage, and loss of the ability of the
tissues to burn glucose, were both corrected
by the use of insulin. There could, therefore,
be not doubt wrhatsoever that normal carbo-
hydrate metabolism was dependent on the
activity of the pancreatic hormone.
As soon as insulin was obtained in a suffi-
cient state of purity to permit of subcutaneous
administration of the same to the human sub-
ject without fear of local or toxic side reac-
tions, a clinical trial was made.6 Before these
clinical experiments were carried out, however,
it had been shown by animal experimentation
that decidedly favourable results were to be
anticipated. The laboratory experimentation
had shown that all the cardinal symptoms of
diabetes could be controlled by thc continued
use of insulin and that the depancreatized
animal could be maintained in a normal state
and its life prolonged for at least 70 days. It
w as therefore not surprising after the first cliii-
ical study had been rnade, that the following
conclusions were arrived at:
(1) Blood sugar can be markedly reduced
even to the normal values.
(2) Glycosuria can be abolished.
(3) The acetone bodies can be made to dis-
appear from the urine.
(4) The respiratory quotient shows evidence
of increased utilization of carbohydrates.
(5) A definite improvement is observed in
the general condition of these patients and in
addition the patients themselves report a sub-
jective sense of well-being and increased
vigor for a period following the administra-
tion of these preparations.
The extensive use of insulin in various clinics
the world over within the past year and a half,
has amply demonstrated the specific nature of